George Siemen on his Connectivism blog has posted about adaptability as a vision of a learning environment which "'knows us' as learners, it adapts to respond to our actions".
I'd assume that teachers and trainers have always wanted to achieve this, but technology can play a part in this. As George and those who have left their comments on the post suggest, this could start with the class using blogs and wikis, allowing the teacher to follow the reflections and see more easily how the class are understanding the content and curriculum.
In the future we could develop more complex Virtual Learning Environments in which the technology responds to individual students. At a very basic level they could incorporate technologies similar to Amazon's recomendations system, remembering keywords used in student posts and searches to advise them of materials and content related to those subjects, when they log in. Perhaps even linking them to other people who have similar interests through profiles (as Blogger does) and the search records.
When we create our own VLE we can do this, but I'm sure it could go much further.