16 August, 2012

The Last Post?


I’m writing what might well be the last post on Cakes. I’ve been posting on here since 2004, but feel a change might be in order - here’s why.

There’s been a push at our institution to stop using blogs for informal communication, and to instead use them for marketing purposes and formal communication. While Cakes is not owned by our institution and much of the work on it has occurred outside of work time, it is known as our team's blog and this change in institutional focus has left me uncomfortable posting on here recently.

Another good reason to move on is that I think that a new blog without links to Edge Hill University would allow me to throw ideas around a bit more, and give me a feeling of moving forward. I’ve been working in the area of Technology Enhanced Learning for a while now, and need a place where I can relight my enthusiasm a little.

Anyway if anyone would like to subscribe, my new blog is called Learning, Technology and Higher Education.

Perhaps others in LTD would like to post links to their new blogs on here too?

09 July, 2012

Designing Multimedia for Teaching Concepts in Science

In the ‘Khan Academy and the Effectiveness of Science Videos’ video on the Veritasium YouTube channel Derek Muller talks about his interesting PHD research on ‘Designing Effective Multimedia for Physics Education’.

In Derek's research surveys had revealed that students had various alternative conceptions on quantum tunneling which could be represented within a small number of answers. Two multimedia lessons were created in an attempt to teach the students about the concept. One lesson which was a lecture style explanation of the correct answer, and the other was a dialogue which included looking at why the misconceptions were wrong. The dialogue lesson was most successful at helping students move to a correct understanding and these findings might guide us when creating resources to teach similar science based topics online.

The video indirectly suggests a minor potential issue to me. Students found the videos that helped them learn best “confusing”, and the ones which resulted in them being more confident about their own misconceptions as “clear”,”concise” and “easy to understand”. Does this mean that using this method of improving learning might lead to lower marks in the National Student Survey for the “Staff are good at explaining things” question? Perhaps existing efforts to encourage students to reflect on and understand their own learning might mean this is not an issue.

Really though, the video is designed to make us think about how appropriate the Khan academy videos are for teaching science concepts. I think that The Khan Academy is going in the right direction with its 'Practice' section of the web site where you need to answer questions correctly to demonstrate understanding before you move on to the next lesson. When I worked through the Maths questions and resources I appreciated having both aspects. However Derek research leads him to an interesting perspective in Chapter 11 'Discussion' when he argues that that learning activities do not have to be 'active' in such an obvious way. Learning can be encouraged through the methods that he talks about in his research. He writes "Depending on the methods employed in multimedia, instruction can be viewed in different ways by students, encouraging different levels of learning."

[via Open Culture - Image by dmpop]

04 July, 2012

What Are the Barriers Preventing Academic Staff From Using New Technologies in Teaching and Learning?

I asked this question on Quora, as I mentioned last year to see if people had any interesting experiences and insights in this area, and then went on to explore the question further including undertaking some small scale research.

The reason that I wanted to explore this question is that often teaching staff attend staff development sessions and say that they see a value using a certain tool or technology - but the use doesn’t always occur. I’ve had a look for research in this area to see what themes might emerge from that which might help us think about how to remove barriers that exist.

The research I looked at has focused on the perspectives of academic staff and managers in Higher Education, and teachers in schools. The main perceived barriers to general educational technology use seemed to be:

  • teacher’s lack of time (Chen, 2009)
  • teacher’s lack of interest (Chen, 2009)
  • lack of rewards given to teachers (Chen, 2009)
  • lack of money (UCISA, 2010)
  • lack of academic staff knowledge (UCISA, 2010)
  • poor available equipment (Brill and Galloway, 2007)

Some other studies look at individual technologies and the specific barriers connected with them. For example the barrier for those trying to use Computer Assisted Language Learning was that existing off the shelf software they tried to use was not appropriate for their needs (Lee 2000), and they couldn't afford to get their own bespoke software made. Users of Second Life found barriers to be the unusual way that identity is constructed in the environment (Warburton, 2009), and the need for cross departmental work to make the development work worthwhile (Davidson and Goldberg, 2010).

There has also been research that looks more deeply at the reported perceptions, rather than just reporting them.

Lane and Lyle in 2010 looked at how teacher age, gender and experience affected perceptions of the strengths of the barriers. They found that the main influences were teacher experience, and expertise with the technology.

Ertmer (1999) looked at what she called first-order barriers, that is those extrinsic to the teacher like time constraints, and second-order barriers which are rooted in teachers beliefs and therefore usually unnoticed by them.

However you look at all this, the barriers that are reported in the research are wide ranging. Some need to be addressed at a high level in educational institutions, but as Learning Technologists we can work on removing barriers such as
 lack of academic staff knowledge right away.

Note that in this study
 I started my search using the term 'barriers' and not using the term ‘obstacles’. Research such as Rockwell et al (1999), and Freeman and Capper (2000) are examples of research papers using that term.

If you want to look at any of the research mentioned above, I’ve listed them below.

  • Brill, J. and Galloway, C. (2007) ‘Perils and Promises: University Instructors’ Integration of Technology in Classroom-Based Practices’ British Journal of Educational Technology 38(1) pp.95-105.
  • Chen, B. (2009) ‘Barriers to Adoption of Technology: Mediated distance education in Higher Education Institutions’ Quarterly Review of Distance Education 10(4) pp.333-338.
  • Davidson, C. and Goldberg, D. (2010) Future of Thinking: Learning Institutions in a Digital Age. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  • Ertmer, P. (1999) ‘Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology integration’ Educational Technology Research and Development 47(4). pp.47-61.
  • Freeman, M. and Capper, J. (2000) ‘Obstacles and opportunities for technological innovation in business teaching and learning’ International Journal of Management Education. 1(1). pp37-47.
  • Lane, C. and Lyle, H. (2010) ‘Obstacles and Supports Related to the use of Educational Technologies: The Role of Technological Expertise, Gender, and Age’ Journal of Computing in Higher Education. 23(1). pp.38-59.
  • Lee, K. (2000) ‘English Teachers' Barriers to the Use of Computer-assisted Language Learning’ The Internet TESL Journal. 6(12).
  • Rockwell, S. et al (1999) ‘Incentives and obstacles influencing higher education faculty and administrators to teach via distance’ Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration. 2(4)
  • UCISA (2010) Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for Higher Education in the UK. Oxford: www.ucisa.ac.uk.
  • Warburton, S. (2009) ‘Second Life in Higher Education: Assessing the Potential for and the Barriers to Deploying Virtual Worlds in Learning and Teaching’ British Journal of Educational Technology 40(3) pp.414-426.

27 April, 2012

Campus Pack: Introduction to Wikis

Wikis were originally created as a very simple way to put information online, that all users could edit. They weren't designed to look pretty, just to be quick and easy to use.

Wikis have developed over time and now it can be hard to see the difference between a content management system and a wiki. Generally though Wikis contain things like widely editable pages, a page history, records of discussions about the page's development, and the ability to subscribe to notifications of changes to the page. Duffy and Bruns (2008) provide a good quick overview of wikis and their uses in 'The use of blogs, wikis and RSS in education: A conversation of possibilities'.

As some interesting examples of non-education specific uses have a look at:
  • Wikipatterns - A collaboratively updated book about different ways in which wikis can be used
  • Pulp Bard - Colaborative project to translate the Pulp Fiction film script into a Shakespearean equivalent
  • Wikipedia (English Version) - The largest wiki
  • Wikia - A site hosting 1000s of wikis where the communities have collected information about things like travelgames and films.

Many educators have used in Wikis in Higher Education. Some uses we are aware of at Edge Hill include:

Other uses elsewhere in Higher Education include:

Potential benefits reported have included
  • Wikis "supporting social-constructivist models of pedagogy" (Feng Su and Chris Beaumont, 2010)
  • Wikis "invite collaboration and tolerate dissension, moving toward consensus and defined disagreement" (Cummings and Barton, 2008)
  • Students can benefit from quick peer feedback when there is a vibrant community. (Feng Su and Chris Beaumont, 2010)
  • Wikis can be used to promote integration of learning - i.e. "the ability to connect, apply, and/or synthesize information, knowledge and skills across varied contexts" (Barber, 2012)
Potential issues to be aware of, include those related to orientation and usability of the technology.
  • "inadequate socialisation at the start of the collaborative activity was a key obstacle in conducting group projects or activities at a distance" (Dr Shailey Minocha)
  • "When participants fail to form functional groups in their wikis, their ability to engage with the task and to form a community of enquiry... is impaired." (Benson, et al, 2012)
  • Finding the right wiki tool for your particular use. "usability is the key attribute for a positive user experience" (Shailey Minocha and Peter G. Thomas, 2007)
I've started making notes around a few articles and my list might help you get started exploring the literature.

Finally, the following videos have been created to show how certain simple things can be done using Campus Pack wikis.

26 April, 2012

Campus Pack: An Expanded Range of Tools for Blackboard

Currently Blackboard Learn contains a range of tools for creating and sharing resources, along with different types of communication tools. Campus Pack is a set of tools which will increase the ability of students to create their own content within Blackboard, and will make it easier for them to share their work outside of that environment.

The tools in Campus Pack include Wikis, Blogs/Journals, Podcasts and other content creation tools that can be used for ePortfolio creation. These tools can be added to a Blackboard section by a tutor, or used outside of a classes official module area by a student.

In the next few posts we'll take a quick look at the tools available through Campus Pack, why they might be used in Higher Education, and how you can use them.

15 November, 2011

Introduction to Using Clickers in Higher Education

Clickers (also known as Audience Response Systems, Classroom Communication Systems, and Personal Response Systems, among other things), are systems that support audience participation in lectures.

Some use these tools are used in large group sessions as part of efforts to -:

  • Allow anonymous interaction
    • These systems can be used to encourage anonymous answering of questions where the teacher feels that would be beneficial to encouraging participation, or for ethical reasons.
  • Increase engagement
    • Some teachers believe that asking the students questions at the start, or part way through a lecture can help keep the students focused.
  • Start discussions
    • Perhaps the most talked about use of Clickers is as part of the Peer Instruction method. In this method students would be asked to answer a question which is designed so that only students with a grasp of certain concepts will be able to answer it correctly. Students see the range of answers on a big screen and are asked to defend their answer to the people sitting next to them. They then vote again, and there should be a move towards the correct answer. The lecturer can then take over if they feel that is necessary.
    • This seems to work best in subjects where a key to learning is helping students understand none-intuitive concepts. Examples are Physics (see the work of Eric Mayer, and watch a video of a presentation by him) or Mechanical Engineering (see the work at the Univerisity of Strathclyde).
  • Aid Contingent Teaching and diagnosis of common misunderstandings
    • A lecturer with well written questions can identify where lots of the class are misunderstanding a concept.
  • Record answers
    • If anonymity is not required, it is possible to record answers for individual student’s summative assessment.
If you want to look a bit more closely at some of these methods, especially Peer Instruction, the following journal articles might be of interest. 

10 November, 2011

ALT-C 2011: The Videos

Selected talks from ALT-C 2011 are now available on YouTube.

To give you an idea of what might be interesting to you I've listed the talks along with a quick overview of those that I've watched.

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23 June, 2011

Make the Web come to you: Simple tools and techniques to keep you in the loop.

[Session Notes]

I ran a new session on Wednesday about using web feeds to keep track of online information. This has made a big difference to the number of topics I can keep track of, and so I'm keen to share about them more widely in the institution.

A section was added about online social networking sites such as Twitter, as some people find that they replace the need for feed readers in their own lives.

I thought I'd share a link to the session notes which contain a link to a screencast version of the session, and some extra resources to expand what we talked about. There's no real replacement for getting a group of people together to talk about experiences and help each other learn, but these resources might be of some use to you.

Creative Commons Licence

13 June, 2011

Using Blackboard 9.1: Uploading Content into Blackboard

This guide is designed for those who have lots of resources to upload into Blackboard 9.1 in Learning Edge, for example those manually migrating from Blackboard 8 or those who are running online courses.

We’ll present you with several ways that you can manage and upload those resources, allowing you to choose the best solution for yourself.

Basic file uploads.

Using WebDAV
  • WebDAV allows you to map a Blackboard 9.1 section to your network drives so you can use it as you would use your G: drive. You can drag files and folders into Blackboard.
    • Note that this system will not work on every computer and we can only currently tell you how to set it up on Windows XP.
    • Firstly you need to get the URL for the Blackboard section in question.
    • Secondly you need to add the web address to your Network Places (or equivalent). Our video shows how this is done on Windows XP, but the process may change a little or stop working when we move to Windows 7.

eLearning Content Creation Tools

12 May, 2011

Initial Thoughts on Livescribe Smartpens and 'Pencasts'

I finally got to play with a Livescribe pen last night, and the possibilities of using look interesting.

The company describe it as a ‘smartpen’, and it records both what you write and the audio in the room at the same time. I’ve mainly heard people talk about students using these tools to take audio enhanced lecture notes, but the Flash based file that you can export could be used in a very similar way to some screencasts.

The pen requires special paper for it to work but you can print that for free, and you also need to install the free software on your PC or Mac.

An important question regarding this tool would be related to the ethical aspects of recording lectures and meetings. Would students have to declare that they were using one of these in a lecture? Then again some students bring other recording devices to lectures already, so perhaps there is already an expectation that these events will be recorded.

Creative Commons Licence

15 March, 2011

Thoughts on Gamification and Higher Education

We've talked about games before on this blog from the perspectives of using them as learning experiences, and learning environments. What we've perhaps explored less is games' role in motivation.

I think that a fair number of teachers see the potential for using technology and games as a novelty to get students' attention. While this might work, it seems to me that there is a high cost of development when novelty only lasts a short time.

With the resources available we might gain more from using techniques from games to increase motivation. I've watched some talks over the last year or so which bring different perspectives, but look at how games and game techniques can change our culture.
Game mechanics is a very interesting area to look at. As Seth says, we see those used by business in many ways. But how can HE use them? And how do these claims fit in with the work of people like Alfie Kohn who see issues with extrinsic rewards?

Jessie Schell's talk includes a lot about reward systems. We’ve long had reward systems (Nectar points, Airmiles, etc) but the possibilities are expanding with services like foursquare and SCVNGR making it easier for smaller organisations to offer similar and potentially more interesting reward systems.

SCVNGR is especially interesting as you can easily set tasks for people to do, and even offer them a reward when they have. In the HE context this could be used as a potentially interesting, alternative way of giving new students a list of tasks to do for induction. It would have to be voluntary and done on trust, but we could create more complex location aware tours of campus with QR codes to scan, or tasks to do such as check out a book on your reading list from the library or access an ebook on a topic you are interested in.

I've created an example task to show how this works. You'll need the SCVNGR app on your phone, and you'll use it to search for the SOLSTICE Centre (there are two so find the one with the 'Pay us a visit!' quest on it). Scan the QR code on our door and you'll get 2 points. Woo hoo!

I couldn't resist thinking up a list of Xbox style achievements relating to an induction and library activity:
  • 10 - Borrower: Check out and return a book from the library
  • 20 - Book Worm: Check out 15 books from the library
  • 10 - Are 'Books' Electric?: Log into the library catalogue and access an eBook
  • 10 - What Shelf are the eJournals on?: Access an eJournal article
  • 20 - Virtual Learner: Access Blackboard
  • 10 - Big Spender: Spend some money from your UniCard
  • 30 - Egghead: Complete the quiz at the end of InfoZone with 100% correct answers.
However they wouldn't work in reality as they would require a big, complex system to track student activity.

Regarding concerns that motivational techniques might harm intrinsic motivation, I'm not really aware of the discussions around this. I think it might be less of an issue here as we are talking about games, which are by nature voluntarily participated in. Before you join in with the game you make a decision to do so, meaning that these techniques could be presented as a tool for the students to motivate themselves to do things that they know will help themselves learn.

This post is a quick overview of my initial thoughts on an area which is being talked about a lot, and I'd be really interested to hear other people's too.

[image by Bodum]

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25 February, 2011

Learning Technology Journals

Inspired by a recent conversation on the ALT-MEMBERS group on JISCMail, I've developed my list of all the Learning Technology related journals that I find interesting or useful.

The list contains:

1. Feeds for the journals so that you can subscribe with a feed reader (e.g. Google Reader).

2. Links to the journals' home pages so you can find articles and information about the journal.

3. Links to the journals' pages in the EHU library catalogue, for Edge Hill University staff and students.

4. The date when we last tweeted about a new issue of the journal in question. This is mostly relevant for me as I also try to tweet around the time that new issues of these journals are published. You could follow #cakesltd on Twitter to get these updates.

I hope this list might be helpful to people who are quite new to this area of using new technology in teaching and learning, and who are wanting to explore the research.

[image by the.Firebottle]

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic License.

11 February, 2011

SOLSTICE & CLTR Conference 2011: Call for Abstracts

This year the SOLSTICE and CLTR conferences will be run as one, and the call for abstracts has gone out.

The conference will focus on the enhancement of student learning through evidence informed practices.

Day one, the SOLSTICE 2011 eLearning Conference will focus on effective practices from a Technology Enhanced Learning perspective and will build on the success of the SOLSTICE Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning’s previous conferences which have run over the last 5 years.

Day two, the CLTR 2011 Learning & Teaching Research Conference will focus on innovation and development in higher education learning and teaching practice, which has been at the heart of the CLTR’s mission for the last 9 years.

10 February, 2011

Thoughts on Personal Learning Environments for Formal and Informal Learning

There are various things that the term Personal Learning Environment (PLEs) can refer to, but any definition would look on them as student controlled environments to support either formal or informal learning. Stephen Downes' 2005 E-learning 2.0 article does a good job of talking through the changes that have been taking place over the last decade, which have led us to using and talking about this sort of thing.

We can gain a basic understanding of PLEs by comparing them to VLEs For example:
  • VLEs
    • Managed by institution.
    • Made of a few pieces of software.
    • Owned by Institution.
    • Student uses for the time that they are in formal education.
    • Content mainly provided by institution.
  • PLEs
    • Managed by student
    • Made up of varying numbers of pieces of software, people and networks.
    • Owned by student as far as that is possible
    • Student uses for the time that they are wanting to learn about a topic
    • Content provided by wide variety of people

This is a very simple comparison and Envisioning the Post-LMS Era: The Open Learning Network goes much deeper (see Table 1).

Some are looking at the idea of the Open Learning Network as trying to merge the best of these two 'systems' in a formal setting, with a different Informal Learning Environment as the solution for informal learning or small scale corporate learning.

Exploring these ideas leads me to two questions.

Firstly, can we see our VLE and supporting tools developing to include what an Open Learning Network is, or would we need to develop new systems to support this? I don't feel that I understand the concept enough to comment right now, although the development of the Learning Edge system, which is more than just a VLE, seems like it could be a foundation for something like this.

The second question is how do we support students and staff to develop their own Personal Learning Environment for their own informal lifelong learning. A good starting place would be to work out what it might look like. Sarah Stewart tried to visualise hers and how it changed over several years. If I was to examine mine looking at inputs and outputs from the perspective of work on my SOLSTICE Fellowship I might find:
  • Inputs
    • Face-to-face - Colleagues in the office, other Fellows, academic staff
    • Web content collected by Google Reader - Blogs, conferences, journals
    • Twitter - content and comment from around the sector
    • Personal experiences
  • Outputs
    • Face-to-face - meetings, conferences and conversations
    • Twitter - content and comment
    • Blog posts
    • Reports to institution
    • Relevant research list
    • Delicious bookmarks
Is this what we want a informal PLE to be for our learners? There are specific goals (reports, influencing people to use the technology where it is appropriate), there is communication and reflection about what has been learned (the process of writing blog posts and reports) but in writing this out I see different outputs and can recognise how chaotic this process is.

In conversations in the office it was noted that if we are to support the development of people's PLEs, we really need to know what process individuals go through when using them. There’s not a right or wrong way to manage your inputs (e.g. Web Feeds, Podcasts, Twitter networks, and Bookmarks), but advice on work flow could help people use appropriate tools well.

So it looks to me like we could:
  1. Encourage people to visualise their own PLE in some way to identify what is involved and enable developments.
  2. Raise awareness about various tools that can be used in your informal learning. (e.g. we could run face-to-face and online sessions, publish blog posts).
  3. Encourage sharing of how work-flows can be improved while performing tasks (e.g. using a feed reader rather than visiting dozens of web sites every week to check for updates, backing up your data).

09 February, 2011

2011 Horizon Report: A Quick Overview

I always enjoy reading the new edition of the Horizon report. It’s interesting to see what they think is close to being used in mainstream HE, what is far off, and how things have changed since previous years (2008, 2009, 2010). I don't think that they've been far off in their predictions, although uptake of the technologies by the mainstream has perhaps been a little slower than expected.

This year in the One Year or Less to adoption section we have Electronic Books and Mobiles. In the Two to Three Years to adoption group we have Augmented Reality and Game-Based Learning. Four to Five Years to adoption contains Gesture-Based Computing and Learning Analytics.

Over the next week or so, some of us in LTD hope to write up some thoughts on the report and the individual technologies discussed within.

07 February, 2011

What are the Barriers Preventing Academic Staff from Using New Technologies?

As part of my Postgraduate Certificate I'm starting some research into what the barriers/obstacles are to the use of new technology in teaching and learning in HE. To start with I wanted clues as to which areas might be worth exploring. I also wanted a change to play with Google Moderator, as I've not had a chance yet.

Have a look at the Series that I set up and it'd be great if you could add your own suggestions to it.

If you'd like to think about using Google Moderator with your students ktotheb's video gives you an example of how it could be used, and Penn State University have written an overview.

27 January, 2011

Getting Started Using Blackboard 9.1: Collected Resources

We've just started using Blackboard 9.1 for teaching on a select few modules. I've collected links to the resources we've initially been recommending to the teaching staff here.

An Introduction
  • Quick Overview of Blackboard 9.1 (v1. November 2010): This video introduces the new system and notes differences between this and our current Blackboard CE8 system.
  • Quick Overview of Blackboard 9.1 (v2. February 2011): Screencast version of the awareness raising session complete with Closed Captions, and Interactive Transcript (best viewed full screen at 720p).
  • 5 Essential Skills: Basics that will help you develop your section.
  • How to log into Blackboard 9.1 through Edge Hill University's Go Portal. This video is aimed at students but relevant to all.

Thinking about what you want to achieve

Creating content and setting up the section

Communication and collaboration


12 January, 2011

Technology and Radical Transformation

For those who are interested in the idea of technology and its relation to radical transformation of learning, I've read a couple interesting things recently which look at that idea.

Stephen Downes writes in his 'Half an Hour' blog as part of a discussion around the benefits of technology use in education. He sums up his own argument well, saying

  • "technology does not improve education by making what you are already doing better, it improves education by making what you are not doing possible."

The other resource to explore is the latest issue of the ALT-J journal, entitled 'The Transformational Impact of Learning Technology'. In the introduction the editors write that in this issue they "look for radical change, rather than just doing the same at a different scale." In this issue is the 'Web-based lecture technologies and learning and teaching: a study of change in four Australian universities' paper, where the authors do not see in depth change and conclude that "technologies have been added on, rather than integrated into the curriculum".

These three pieces all give us similar perspectives on learning technology. It's something that enables you to do what you could not before, something that encourages you to completely rethink the way you do things, and something that should be properly integrated into learning design. These ideas give us room for thought and discussion about how technology could affect both our teaching and wider institutional strategies.

23 November, 2010

Quickly Updating the Files in Blackboard Using WebDAV

I've been asked how to update files in Blackboard using WebDAV, and though it worth sharing the instructions more widely. We have not used this method much and so are not aware if any problems and complications may occur. Let us know of your experiences if you do try and use it.

WebDAV allows quick updating of files on Blackboard through the familiar Windows Explorer interface. I'm not sure if this method will work on on other operating systems than Windows.

The first step is to find the URL for your Blackboard section. This video (which has no sound) shows the process in Blackboard version 8 which we currently use. Watch it full screen.

In Learning Edge/Blackboard 9.1, you can find the URL in a slightly different way.

When you have the URL for your Blackboard section, you can add it to your network places following these instructions.

Does blogging make better teachers, nurses, managers?

Andy Carvin's learning now blog on a screen at National School Boards Conference
I’ve just started following someone widely regarded as a bit of an e-learning guru: Stephen Downes.   The first email update I received inspired me enough to create this posting.

Stephen pointed me to a post by Dean Shareski:
“ … suggesting that the way to make better teachers is to get them to blog.”
I’ve just read the article – perhaps something to consider across all professional courses at Edge Hill?  (Can I can hear ethical alarm bells ringing!?)

Comments sought, kindest regards,

Image by Steve Rhodes